I was in an interesting discussion about digital currency today and was asked for a reading list, so here is the bibliography from The Currency Cold War

Birch, D. Identity is the New Money. London Publishing Partnership (London: 2014).

Birch, D. Before Baylon, Beyond Bitcoin. London Publishing Partnership (London: 2017).

Brunton, F. Digital Cash—The Unknown History of the Anarchists, Utopians and Technologists Who Created
Cryptocurrency. Princeton (Princeton, NJ: 2019).

Casey, M. and P. Vigna. The Age of Cryptocurrency—How Bitcoin and the Blockchain Are Challenging the Global Economic Order. St. Martin’s (2015).

Cooley, J. Currency Wars—Forging Money to Break Economies. Constable (London: 2008).

Davies, R. Extreme Economies: Survival, Failure, Future Lessons from the World’s Limits. Bantam (London: 2019).

Ferguson, N. The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World. Penguin (London: 2012).

Frankopan, P. The New Silk Roads. Bloomsbury (London: 2018).

Guttman, R. Cybercash—The Coming Era of Electronic Money. Palgrave Macmillian (New York: 2003).

Lynch, D. and Lundquist, L. Digital Money—The New Era of Internet Commerce. John Wiley (New York, NY: 1996).

Rickards, J. Currency Wars—The Making of the Next Global Crisis. Portfolio (New York, NY: 2012).

Rogoff, K. The Curse of Cash. Princeton University Press (Princeton, 2016).

Townsend, E. Beyond Blockchain: The Death of the Dollar and the Rise of Digital Currency. Independent (2018).

Wilson, P. Hostile Money—Currencies in Conflict. The History Press (Stroud, 2019).


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A Clubhouse chat with Europe, Asia and Pacific friends

A date for your diary if you are interested in digital currency.

Monday, 29th March at 7am UK time (8am Amsterdam, 3pm Hong Kong and 5pm in Sydney).

A Clubhouse hour with my friends from Europe, Asia and the Pacific Region.

I’ll be reading extracts from “The Currency Cold War” and discussing digital currency and its implications with guests including James Lloyd from E&Y, Victoria Richardson from the Australian Payment Network, lawyer Joni Pirovich, John Ryan from the Emerging Payments Association Asia-Pacific, Robert Allen from eftpos, Robert Bell from 86400 and many more.

For this discussion, I’m going to focus on these extracts from the draft of the revised paperback edition that I am planning for next year:

  • The E-Cash Genes: what are the technological pressures and how do they shape the “evolutionary tree”.
  • Light and Dark: the implications of non-fungibility for money.
  • Swerving around Swift: the impact on America’s ability to exert soft power.

With thanks to London Publishing Partnership and Provoke Management.

Remember, you can buy The Currency Cold War as an audiobook too now, so you can listen to it while jogging or whatever it is people do nowadays instead of sitting down and reading books properly.

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Implementation options

The wonderful people at the Journal of Payment Strategy and Systems, which is my favourite journal in the entire world, have kindly allowed me to post a PDF of my newest paper. It is called “Clouds, Chips and Chains” and it discusses in some detail the evolution of digital cash and the options for implementing digital cash as a central bank digital currency (CBDC). Please do download it, subscribe to this wonderful journal and send me your feedback CBDC good or bad: it’s an area I want to learn more about.

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Digital euro differentiation

The Economist covered Bitcoin reaching $50,000 with a story that touched on the digital euro. They noted that such a Euro-CBDC might bolster the international role of the euro (only a third as much is held in international reserves as the dollar, which dominates) and that such a system would be faster, cheaper and safer than sending euro payments through the current network of  “correspondent” banks. They were kind enough to quote me on one interesting area of potential differentiation:

Its main draw may be to offer a level of privacy that neither America nor China can promise, says Dave Birch, a fintech expert. 

From Token effort – Bitcoin crosses $50,000 | Finance & economics | The Economist:

America uses its financial system to enforce sanctions, China seeks control: but a European alternative that balanced the legitimate requirements of law enforcement and European principles of privacy (think GDPR for money) might be a globally desirable option. As I explained to the journalist, one way forward might be to use digital identity and pseudonymous wallets, with regulated financial institutions providing the links.

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Practical implementation of a CBDC

The Futurism Forum kindly invited me along to talk about the practical implementation of a central bank digital currency (CBDC) so I used my “evolutionary tree” to explain the development of electronic cash technologies and to suggest ways to use these technologies to build a CBDC. This presentation is now on YouTube so please do have a coffee, follow the link below and then give me your feedback good or bad.


As I mention in this presentation, I am very much in favour of implementing CBDC as a special case of a more generalised digital asset trading infrastructure and I am naturally curious to hear other informed perspectives. 

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Holiday reading (me)

The journalist Wendy Grossman reviews six books for your 2020 holiday season and kindly says of The Currency Cold War:

“If you believe, as Birch does, that these upheavals are inevitable, then it’s logical to consider how to manage the change. He proposes that the US and UK should develop a global digital identity infrastructure; create a global e-money licence; provide a digital diligence system that is alternative to and less exclusionary than the KYC regimes operating now; and create new payment systems that work with all of these. As he says in the book, and has repeated at numerous events since its release, government-backed digital currencies are not his idea, it’s coming from ‘serious’ people like Mark Carney, the former governor of the Bank of England.

P.S. Her reviews are very good. I’ve already ordered one of the other books from the list!

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Listening and learning

In a recent episode of Professor Scott Galloway’s podcast, he talked with one of my favourite writers: the eminent historian and Hoover Institution senior fellow Niall Ferguson. The subject of the conversation was the relationship between the United States and China. Their fascinating and informative discussion ranged across many fields, including financial services and fintech. Ferguson touched on a particular aspect of “Cold War 2” in this context, saying that American regulators “have allowed the fintech revolution to happen everywhere else” going on to say that “China has established an important lead in, for example, payments”, clearly referring to the dominance of mobile payments in China and the role of (in particular) Alipay in bringing financial services. He made this comment around the same time that the Chinese government pulled the plug on the Alipay IPO, what would have been the biggest IPO in history.

One of Ferguson’s central points is that the US depends to a greater extent than people realise on the US dollar being the international reserve currency. As he says in the podcast, the US has “an almost unlimited capability” to borrow in its own currency because the dollar is so dominant nand that “we are going to have a period of challenges to the US dollar of various forms and tenacious defence of its dominance by a US government that understands its existential importance to the United States”.

If you want to understand some of the big picture around the coronavirus, currency and what Ferguson referred to as “Cold War 2”, but what I call “The Currency Cold War” in this book, then you might want listen to this podcast from CoinDesk. It is a wide ranging conversation between Ferguson and CoinDesk’s Michael Casey about our disrupted world, inevitable crisis and what it could mean for money. As the author of one of the best books on the history of finance, The Ascent of Money, Ferguson has a very wide and well-informed perspective on the issues and, indeed I quote him more than once in my book!

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Chosen as one of the best

I was very flatted and, frankly, honoured to see The Currency Cold War selected in the top 10 of the best books about cryptography by a panel comprising the noted venture capitalist Marc Andreessen, Professor of Applied Cryptography Nadim Kobeissi, Associate Professor of Economics Stephen Kinsella and Researcher Jerry Gamblin.

Crypto Top 100

 To be listed at no.7 amongst these brilliant books is more than I could have hoped for a year ago when I sat down to start work on what turned out to be the most timely of my books so far! A big thank you to everyone at the London Publishing Partnership for making this happen.

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CCW audiblle

I am beyond excited to announce that the audiobook version of The Currency Cold War is now available on Audible and other platforms. It is expertly narrated by James Barlow, a professional voice artist who made a great job of interpreting my words for a general audience. Enjoy!

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